When we see the entire universe, many questions arise in the mind and also we wonder how this all happened….from very minute to the largest…..now science has come up with many explanations and still the discoveries are going on….and many new facts are being discovered and is still going on….until we discover it, was it not existing…it was existing…only thing is we didnt recognise its existence….so even Einstein, Hawking , all agree to the fact that there is a definitely an intelligence , an energy which made this possible and still are discovering the secrets behind this entire universe….same intelligence was recognised by our great saints in the past and called it as Universal consciousness…..
God consciousness…..Divinity….Supreme Intelligence…..Energy / Driving Force………God…..Bhagavan…….
It is very well explained in Ishopanishad….
ॐ पूर्णमदः पूर्णमिदं पूर्णात्पुर्णमुदच्यते
पूर्णश्य पूर्णमादाय पूर्णमेवावशिष्यते ॥
ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥
Om Purnam-Adah Purnam-Idam Purnaat-Purnam-Udachyate
Purnasya Purnam-Aadaaya Purnnam-Eva-Avashissyate ||
Om Shaantih Shaantih Shaantih ||
Literally it means…
1: AUM, That is Full, This also is Full, From Fullness comes that Fullness,
2: Taking Fullness from Fullness, Fullness Indeed Remains.
3: AUM Peace, Peace, Peace.
One will completely get confused…as to what is “That” and what is “This”…..what is “Fullness”….what is “Remains”….
Sanskrith is a language full of metaphors and analogues and uses minimum words and conveys maximum meaning…..each word is profound and each has different meanings in different situations….
And people get the meaning of those words based on their level of knowledge and maturity of their intellect….
Trying to explain in simple terms…..
Word by word meaning:
“Purnam” = complete
“Adah” =that “Purnamadah” = “that” is complete. “That” is referred to “Divine”
( what we generally refer as God)
God is complete , what does this mean ? Complete means He is self sufficient. He is Eternal. He IS always there. He does not need any external agency to support Him.
“Idam” = “this”
“Purnam Idam” =This is also Complete
“This” indicates the “Atman”
“ATMAN”= the individual Soul- which resides in every living being. “Soul” is complete means “self sufficient” like “Supreme Soul”
In other words the “Soul” which resides in our body is Identical with the “Supreme Soul”
“Purnat” = from (that) complete referring to “Supreme Soul”
“Purnam” = (this) complete referring to “Individual Soul”
“Udachyate” = has “come out” or emerged
This means from the “Supreme Soul” (which is complete by itself) this “Individual Soul” (Complete) has emerged.
This is the verbal meaning of the above. Now let us try to understand the same in different ways, using an example of infinite ocean and a vessel containing the water from this ocean…..
The Ocean is full of water.Thus referring to ocean we can say that (the ocean) is complete (Purnam)= full here.
From this, the small vessel is filled with water.Thus referring to the vessel also we can say this is Complete (Purnam) = full here.
Thus, we can say that the ocean is complete (full of water) and the vessel is also complete (i.e.full of water).
Thus, “Purnamadah Purnamidam” can be interpreted as Supreme Soul and the Individual Soul are both Complete i.e. whole and Identical.
Purnat Purnam Udachyate meaning from the Supreme Soul this Individual Soul is emerged.
Purnasya = of Complete referring to “Supreme Soul”
Purnam =Complete referring to “Individual Soul”
Adaya =giving away to
(i.e. by giving away the completeness (wholeness) by “Supreme Soul” to “Individual Soul”
Purnam eva avashishyate only the Completeness remains.
Now because a few vessels of water, if taken away from the Ocean, has the Ocean become less filled i.e has it become less significant or lost its original form? or is it still full of water? It hardly matters to the Ocean (i.e.,the level of water in Ocean) as to how much water is taken away.
Similarly from “Supreme self” individual self has emerged and is identical and even after taking away the soul, what remains is also the complete self.
Explanation of meaning with example:
Thus as per this Shanti Mantra, the Atma (soul) which is there within ourselves is part of Divine (God) because it has emerged from God.
Just as the mercury droplet when disturbed give us small small droplets and when we bring them together, again merge into the big droplet. Thus our souls have also emerged from God and are destined to merge in God. Only difference is mercury droplet has definite quantity hence reduces in size when small droplets are formed. But Brahman being infinite being does not get reduced even after the soul is emerged. And even after the soul merges in to Brahman it remains the same.
But this is the ideal condition. Just as mercury droplets covered with dust do not merge fully into a big droplet, our souls covered with subtle cover of desires (to worldly things) do not merge with God after death but are born again and again.The aim of study of Upanishad is to cast off the dust of desire with this supreme knowledge and let our souls merge with the God.
The idea is that the phenomenal world has no independent existence.
It exists only because it is supported by the divine / universal consciousness/ intelligence / energy……
It is only a superimposition on the divine. Sometimes if we walk along a road in the dark, we might mistake a rope for a snake. This delusion is possible because of the rope. When this delusion goes, there is no longer a snake. It has merged into the rope. Similarly, when we know Brahman (which is also our Self), the world merges into it.